California issues proposed rules for 'fracking'

California Gov. Jerry Brown's administration proposes rules that would require more disclosure from oil companies in the state that employ hydraulic fracturing, also known as 'fracking.'

Under pressure from state lawmakers and environmentalists, Gov. Jerry Brown's administration released draft regulations for hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," the controversial drilling process driving the nation's oil and gas boom.

The proposed rules, released Tuesday, would require energy companies to disclose for the first time the chemicals they inject deep into the ground to break apart rock and release oil. They also would have to reveal the location of the wells where they use the procedure.

Though fracking has unlocked vast amounts of previously unreachable fossil fuels elsewhere, environmentalists and public health advocates in California have raised safety questions about the hundreds of chemicals used — many of them known carcinogens — and the potential for drinking water contamination.

Jason Marshall, chief deputy director of the state Department of Conservation, said the proposed rules were important to assure the public that "when this practice is engaged in, it is engaged in safely."

The disclosure requirements would put California in line with at least nine other states that have such guidelines. The proposed regulations come as energy companies tout the technology's potential to tap the state's Monterey shale, the largest oil shale formation in the continental United States.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the formation, which runs from Northern California to Los Angeles, contains 15 billion barrels of oil — or 64% of the country's deep-rock deposits.

Environmental and industry groups said the draft regulations were a good first step in what is expected to be a lengthy rule-making process. But environmentalists signaled a coming fight over the level of disclosure, noting a provision that would allow oil companies to withhold disclosure of chemicals they claim to be proprietary.

"The road we're headed down will heap a cloak of secrecy around trade secrets," said Bill Allayaud, a lobbyist for Environmental Working Group.

A recent analysis by Bloomberg News found that companies nationwide withheld from their disclosure reports one out of every five chemicals they used in fracking.